According to the law in force in Quebec, it is mandatory to obtain the free and informed consent before any medical intervention.

The Civil Code of Quebec establishes general rules concerning consent to care, which apply regardless of the place and nature of the care provided in Quebec. Particular distinctions are made depending on whether or not the patient’s state requires the care of health.

Although surgeries and dental treatments are done in Colombia, and the Civil Code of Quebec is not applicable, it is advisable to follow good practise in order to allow a patient to be informed of all the possible risks, even if they are rare, and obtain their free and informed consent in writing or through the Internet.

In other words, the surgeon or dentist must facilitate and respect the patient’s decision-making. It is important to remember that it is up to the surgeon or dentist to obtain the patient’s consent. This activity cannot be delegated to another professional or another authorized person.

Please read the content of this web page carefully before making your decision. It is divided into two sections:

1. SURGERIES

2. DENTAL TREATMENTS

 

CONTENTS OF SURGERIES

  1. DESIRED BENEFITS AND RESULTS
  2. THE RISKS AND COMPLICATIONS OF SURGERY
  3. INSURANCE IN CASE OF COMPLICATIONS
  4. POSTOPERATIVE FOLLOW-UP
  5. RESPONSIBILITIES
  6. GUARANTEES
  7. LEGAL REMEDIES
  8. THE FREE AND INFORMED CONSENT FORM

 

1. BENEFITS AND DESIRED RESULTS

Whatever your motives (to look younger, to correct a blemish, etc.), it is important that you have realistic expectations of the results.

Cosmetic or medical surgery can improve the appearance and function of your face or body, but it is not a miraculous procedure that fulfills all of your desires perfectly. There are indeed physical limits that cannot allow specific surgical interventions or which limit the result obtained.

Plus, surgery can’t turn you into a completely different person. In other words, it is not a miracle solution to your problems.

So you cannot expect this operation to bring you happiness or improve your relationships with others. Undertaking such an intervention with the belief that it will solve your problems and change your life can lead to disappointment, frustration and even postoperative depression. Take the time to determine your expectations, while being realistic.

Going to Colombia to receive one or more surgeries is not without danger. Regardless of the country, the patient must know that the surgeon guarantees a result according to the appearances or the desired functions.

Choosing to go to Colombia for surgery often has the goal of saving money. Since the patient has to pay for transportation, hospitality and living expenses, it is essential to note that these costs are not part of the agreement between the patient and the surgeon in Colombia.

In other words, if there is a complication once returned to his country of origin, the patient recognizes the risks of having to bear these costs if he has to return to Colombia to have the surgery again.

To ensure that everything goes well in Colombia, the patient benefits from an accompanying person who speaks French, English and Spanish, and who knows the country very well, having lived for several years to be with them during their stay.

The patient is aware that the accompanying person is responsible for the medical aspect but wants to be a spokesperson who represents the patient and is not an agency in medical tourism.

 

2. THE RISKS AND COMPLICATIONS OF SURGERY

Having surgery is not just a visit to a beauty salon, and it is a medical act. Always remember that any medical action has risks for your health.

Thus, surgeries carry the same risks of complications and side effects as any other surgical procedure.

Your lifestyle, age and general health can affect how well you prepare for your procedure and how well it goes, as well as your recovery. Here are the risks and complications that you should be aware of:

a) Anesthetic risks

Surgeries that require anesthesia should not be taken lightly. You should consider some risks, which could be:

  • Nausea and vomiting;
  • Feeling weak, blurred vision;
  • Chills and headaches;
  • Itching and discomfort;
  • Bruising and pain at the injection sites;
  • Allergy to an injected drug;
  • Temporary disturbances of memory and concentration.

 

b) Postoperative discomfort in the operated area

Regardless of the surgery, you cannot escape the pain and swelling in the operated area. In some cases, your sensitivity may be affected for several months. These discomforts could be:

  • Discomfort and pain;
  • Swelling and bruising;
  • Lymphatic effusion (accumulation of fluid under the wound);
  • Release of stitches;
  • Numbness, numbness, increased sensitivity, etc.

 

c) Scarring risks

Scars are inevitable, permanent and indelible. Know that today, despite all the advances in medicine, no technology can remove a spot. These risks could be:

  • Healing can last for three years;
  • The scar changes in appearance before reaching its final impression. It should be protected from the sun because a tanned scar will keep that tanned appearance even when your skin has turned pale;
  • An infection could also change its appearance;
  • The final appearance of your scar is unpredictable, and even without complications, the spot may retain its original appearance;
  • A touch-up operation may be necessary to correct minor irregularities.

 

d) Vascular and hemorrhagic complications

The success of surgery depends on a host of factors and is not limited to the area’s state of health. Poor cardiovascular health (varicose veins, history of blood clots, etc.) unnecessarily increases your risk of serious complications. These complications could be:

  • People over 40, obese, smokers, suffering from varicose veins or having a history of vascular disease should take certain precautions before, during and after the procedure to avoid the risk of thrombosis (blood clot) and embolism (displacement of a lump to the heart or lungs);
  • You must stop taking the contraceptive pill or any estrogen-based hormonal treatment one month before the operation to avoid accidents of thrombosis or embolism;
  • For the same reason, it is contraindicated to fly up to 2 weeks after surgery;
  • The risks of bloodshed are relatively frequent but of varying importance. This is why people taking aspirin or anticoagulants should take certain precautions before the procedure to avoid the risk of bleeding, blood transfusion. In more severe cases, it may be necessary to repeat the surgery. To stop the bleeding and to remove the accumulation of blood.

 

e) Risks of infection

Most of the time, all means are done to prevent microbes from entering the person’s skin being operated on. Nonetheless, we have all heard of an unfortunate history of bacterial infection in a hospital setting. It is important to observe for signs of infection, which could be:

  • An infection manifested by redness, pain, swelling of the area operated on;
  • An abscess (bacterial infection of the skin and fat);
  • An infected implant most often needs to be removed;
  • A new implant cannot be replaced for several months, as infection is high.

 

f) Risks associated with smoking

If you smoke, you should consider quitting two months before the procedure, as smoking increases the risk of postoperative complications. The most frequent complications are:

  • Infection;
  • Damaged skin (tissue death or necrosis);
  • Cardiovascular problems;
  • Respiratory complications;
  • Problems with scarring;
  • Issues with bone consolidation.

 

3. INSURANCE IN CASE OF COMPLICATIONS

I have been advised to subscribe to an operation and hospitalization insurance in the event of complications during the surgery and to remain in Colombia for at least two weeks after the process to allow the surgeon to ensure that I return to my country without complications.

 

4. POSTOPERATIVE FOLLOW-UP

A few days after the surgery, a consultation or two is required to check the patient’s condition to ensure that she is recovered from the surgery and does not involve any travel risk.

One of the essential things when you go to another country for surgery, is the follow-up after you return to your country. You must send the doctor pictures of the area of the surgery to follow the progress of the results and your recovery.

In addition, inform them immediately of any pain, infection, swelling, fever or other symptoms. On request, he will send your medical file to your family doctor if emergencies arise.

 

5. RESPONSIBILITIES

On the medical level, only the responsibility of the surgeon or the clinic can be engaged.

I acknowledge that I am aware that the person who translates the surgeon’s information and accompanies me to Colombia has no medical responsibility.

The patient’s responsibility is to provide the information requested by the surgeon and pay the costs indicated on the contract.

 

6. GUARANTEES

The notion of an unsatisfactory result involves an essential part of subjectivity. It is therefore based on the opinion of surgical experts and mutual good faith. Our warranty is valid for one year after surgery.

In the event of a proven complication:

  • If the patient has a complication during and after the operation while in Colombia, all coverage is done on-site at the surgeon’s expense, who has obliged the patient to take out an insurance policy in Colombia before her departure. Arrival.
  • Suppose the patient has a complication when he has already returned to his country of origin and has followed the medical recommendations. In that case, the surgeon in Colombia pays for the new surgery. Photos will make the evaluation. Suppose the surgeon in Colombia notes the preliminary result. In that case, all the costs of further intervention in Colombia are the surgeon’s responsibility in Colombia and the costs of transport, stay, and this does not cover subsistence. Guarantee.
  • The surgeon in Colombia will do everything possible to develop a practical solution if the patient does not wish to return to Colombia for the new surgery. He will ask the patient to make an appointment with his family doctor or an emergency doctor to receive the appropriate care. The Colombian surgeon undertakes to provide the patient’s medical file on request and in French or English.

 

In the event of an unsatisfactory result:

The results are evaluated three times a year after the operation based on images before and after sent by the patient. It nevertheless remains subjective, and the reason why two situations are considered:

  • If the surgeon shares the unsatisfactory report in Colombia, then he will bear the costs of the new operation. The patient must present to Colombia at his own expense.
  • If the surgeon in Colombia does not share the unsatisfactory finding, the arbitration will be done by a surgeon of the patient’s choice. The surgeon in Colombia will comply with the established report and cover the costs of the new operation. The patient must present to Colombia at his own expense.

From a legal standpoint, in all countries, surgery is a contract of means and not of results. This obligation does not require the surgeon to guarantee an outcome, but to take all reasonable means to obtain the desired result. This means that if the result is not satisfactory, but there is no medical error, no legal action can be taken.

 

7. LEGAL REMEDIES

The patient acknowledges that in the event of medical or hospital fault in Colombia, the surgeon in Colombia is not subject to Canadian or Quebec laws but to the civil code of Colombia where the surgery took place.

Furthermore, since surgery is not a market good, financial compensation cannot be requested for an unsatisfactory result.

You can seek legal redress if there is a fault or a technical error. However, the patient must provide proof of this error and travel to Colombia to initiate legal proceedings.

To establish fault, the question to ask is: Was the surgeon’s behaviour reasonably prudent, diligent and competent? In other words, would another surgeon placed in the same circumstances have acted in the same way?

In the case of a surgeon forgetting an instrument in a patient’s stomach or amputating the wrong leg, the surgical error is apparent. In other cases, it may be more challenging to establish.

Here are some examples of medical errors that the courts have recognized:

  • Diagnostic error;
  • Bad treatment ;
  • Poor follow-up;
  • Examination or operation not by the rules of the art;
  • Failure to conduct required studies or tests;
  • Failure to obtain free and informed consent before surgery;
  • Failure to inform the patient about the risks of surgery;
  • Malfunction or improper installation of equipment;
  • Improper use of a tool.

 


 

DENTAL TREATMENT CONTENT TABLE

  1. DESIRED BENEFITS AND RESULTS
  2. THE NATURE OF DENTAL CARE AND TREATMENT
  3. TREATMENT OPTIONS
  4. RISKS AND COMPLICATIONS
  5. FOLLOW-UP AFTER TREATMENTS
  6. RESPONSIBILITIES
  7. GUARANTEES
  8. LEGAL REMEDIES
  9. THE FREE AND INFORMED CONSENT FORM

 

1. BENEFITS AND DESIRED RESULTS

Whatever your motivations (having a beautiful smile, having healthy teeth, correcting a defect, etc.), it is essential that you have realistic expectations of the results.

Dental care and treatment are not miraculous interventions that perfectly meet all your desires. There are indeed physical limits that cannot allow specific dental procedures or which limit the result obtained.

It is essential to distinguish between aesthetic results, therefore appearance, and beneficial effects, therefore not visible.

Undertaking such an intervention with the conviction, the absolute certainty that it will solve your aesthetic problems and change your life can lead to disappointment, frustration and even depression. Take the time to determine your expectations, while being realistic.

Going to Colombia to receive dental care and treatment is not without risk, and regardless of the country, you should know that the dentist in no way guarantees a result according to the desired appearances.

Choosing to go to Colombia often has the goal of saving money, and since you are responsible for the transportation costs, living expenses and living expenses, it is essential to note that these costs do not apply. not part of the agreement between you and the dentist in Colombia.

In other words, if there is any complication after returning to your country of origin, you acknowledge the risks of having to assume these costs, if you have to return to Colombia to repair or replace something related to the care or dental treatments received and that the maximum the dentist can reimburse you is based on what was paid on the contract about the appropriate treatment.

To ensure that everything goes well in Colombia, you benefit from a guide who speaks French, English and Spanish depending on the period chosen by the manual, and who knows the country very well, having lived several years to be with him during your stay.

You are aware that the guide is in no way responsible for the medical aspect but wants to be a spokesperson who represents you and is not an agency in dental tourism.

 

2. THE NATURE OF DENTAL CARE AND TREATMENT

It is essential to explain to the patient what the care and treatment consist of, exactly what the dentist is going to do, and therefore the nature of the care and treatment to achieve the desired results for the patient. A detailed dental diagnosis is the best way to define the heart of the means to be taken and the possibilities of success.

This diagnosis also informs the patient, the dentist’s name, the place of care, dental care and treatment, costs and dates.

The patient must understand the expected benefits of dental care and treatment as well as the aesthetic results. He must know and understand all aspects of care and treatment, the chances of achieving the desired results, how long it will take to complete them, how long the benefits will be felt, and how long the products will last in the form of a guarantee.

The dental diagnosis, therefore, remains clear proof of the nature of the dental care and treatment, the possible results as well as a document allowing the patient to know all the other useful information required to continue the discussion in a manner informed to agree with the dentist without any form of pressure, obligation or fear.

 

3. TREATMENT OPTIONS

Often, patients may have multiple dental treatment options. Some options influence his choice because they can be more intrusive, painful, or expensive than others.

Even if the dentist prefers a given option, it is up to the patient to decide which option is best for them. However, it is acceptable for the dentist to explain why specific options are not recommended and, in general, the side effects, actual effects, and material risks of the other options.

It is not acceptable to only explain the options that the dentist will treat or can offer. All reasonable alternatives should be presented, including those that only other dentists can offer.

 

4. RISKS AND COMPLICATIONS

Your lifestyle, age and general health can affect how well you prepare for and perform your dental care and treatment, as well as your recovery. Here are the risks and complications you need to consider:

 

a) Anesthetic risks

Dental treatments that require anesthesia should not be taken lightly. You should consider some risks, which could be:

  • Nausea and vomiting;
  • Feeling weak, blurred vision;
  • Chills and headaches;
  • Itching and discomfort;
  • Bruising and pain at the injection sites in the gum tissue;
  • Allergy to an injected drug;
  • Temporary disturbances of memory and concentration.

 

b) Postoperative discomfort in the operated area

Regardless of the dental treatment, you cannot escape the pain and swelling in the operated area. In some cases, your sensitivity may be affected for several days. These discomforts could be:

  • Discomfort and pain;
  • Swelling and bruising;
  • Lymphatic effusion (accumulation of fluid under the wound);
  • Release of stitches;
  • Numbness, numbness, increased sensitivity, etc.

 

c) Risks of infection

Most of the time, all means are implemented to prevent microbes from entering the gum tissue. Nevertheless, we have all heard of a tragic story of bacterial infection connected to dental care or treatment. It is important to observe for signs of infection, which could be:

  • An infection manifested by redness, pain, swelling of the treated area;
  • An abscess (bacterial infection in the gum);
  • An infected dental implant most often needs to be removed;
  • A new dental implant cannot be replaced for several months, as infection is high.

 

d) Risks associated with smoking

If you smoke, you should consider quitting before the dental implant procedure, as smoking increases the risk of postoperative complications. The most frequent complications are:

  • Infection;
  • Damaged gingiva;
  • Cardiovascular problems;
  • Respiratory complications;
  • Problems with scarring;
  • Issues with bone consolidation.

 

e) Special risks with dental crowns

Lifting off the crown or pivot-crown: Most loosening results for the patient with a movable restoration in the mouth, but without fracture. For single crowns, re-cementing can usually be done without problems. However, before any new intervention, the dentist must analyze the causes of failure and the damage caused by the detachment. If the dentist notices the presence of cavities or if the crown lacks adaptation, it will have to be redone.

Cracks or fractures of the residual tooth: The choice of an anchor as the seat of a crown always constitutes a mechanical risk for the root. First, during the root management procedure, then during the stresses transmitted to the root during chewing. The root fracture cases lead, in the majority of cases, to the extraction of the tooth.

Fractures or breakage of ceramic elements: The evolution of materials and techniques makes it possible to respond effectively to certain types of repair directly in the mouth. However, aesthetics remain a real challenge, sometimes challenging to achieve.

Prolonged postoperative pain on a vital tooth: This situation requires root canal treatment. This is why if you go to Colombia to have crowns, our dentist very often offers a root canal treatment with a crown.

Other possible complications: Short-term postoperative sensitivity. Temporary pain in the jaw, teeth and muscles when chewing. Possibility of pulp necrosis (death of the tooth) as a result of tooth trimming.

Long-term success and survival: It is difficult to establish with exactness the longevity of a crown when it comes to fixed prostheses. However, it is reasonable to think that no matter how good the initial result, the prosthetic problem will need to be rethought more than once in a lifetime. The patient should be warned.

 

f) Specific risks with dental bridges

Take off from the bridge: Most loosening results for the patient with a movable restoration in the mouth, but without fracture. New cementation can be done for fixed bridges without breaking the bridge and without fracturing the supporting teeth. Detachment can be partial or total. In most cases, the abutments can be kept, and the main objective will be to limit the risks, especially of the root fracture during the attempted removal in the case of a partial detachment. Faced with a total force, the bridge will be put back in place if the pillars are intact. However, before any new intervention, the dentist must analyze the causes of failure and the damage caused by the detachment. If the dentist notices the presence of cavities or if the bridge is no longer satisfactory, it will have to be redone.

Cracks or fractures of abutment teeth: If following root canal treatment, an anchorage in the root had to be considered a seat to the abutment tooth of the bridge, this type of anchorage still represents a mechanical risk for the root, first, during the root management procedure, and then the stresses transmitted to the root during the chewing function. The root fracture cases lead, in the majority of cases, to the extraction of the tooth.

Fractures or breakage of ceramic elements: The evolution of materials and techniques makes it possible to respond effectively to certain types of repair directly in the mouth. However, their aesthetic significance is questionable.

Fractures of the metal components of the bridge: This failure is due to a loss at the junction of the various metal elements welded.

Prolonged postoperative pain on a vital tooth: This situation may require root canal treatment. This is why if you go to Colombia to put a bridge there, our dentist very often offers root canal treatment for the abutment teeth.

Other possible complications: Short-term postoperative sensitivity. Temporary pain in the jaw, teeth and muscles when chewing. Possibility of pulp necrosis as a result of tooth trimming.

 

g) Specific risks with dental veneers

Short-term considerations (30 days after placing in the mouth): Particular care must be taken in the first 72 hours after cementation of the veneer since the product which binds the veneer to the tooth continues its setting reaction during this time. The patient should follow a soft diet, avoid extreme variations in temperature in the mouth and refrain from consuming any food or drink that may cause discoloration or tooth staining (wine, coffee, etc.). After these three days, the patient returns to his usual diet. However, he must avoid crunching hard candy on his teeth, biting crusty bread or eating meat on bones. In addition, he must follow the usual hygiene care (toothbrush and dental floss).

Long-term considerations: Regarding oral hygiene, it must be optimal to avoid plaque accumulation at the facet-tooth junction. The lifespan of veneers is five to ten years, and like any dental restoration, there is a possibility of treatment failure such as:

Fracture: It is possible that cracks can form in porcelain or zirconia before or during cementation. These cracks can become more pronounced and take on the appearance of cracks once in the mouth. Also, a clean fracture of the porcelain may occur during the cementation of the veneer.

Lift-off: It is rare for the veneer to come off ultimately. If this is the case, the dentist resumes the cementation. If the veneer comes off more than once, replacing the veneer with a dental crown is suggested. When a single piece of porcelain or zirconia is fractured, the dentist may try to glue the piece back together or fill the gap with composite resin.

Marginal infiltration: Around the veneer, at the porcelain-tooth junction, fluid infiltration may be created from the oral cavity, causing particular problems such as unsightly colouring, the appearance of stains repeated peeling.

Colouring: In general, the colour of the facet remains stable during the first three years in the mouth. Over time, it may be that
colour deterioration sets in. On the one hand, the infiltration of liquids at the margin of the veneer can cause the appearance of stains, and, on the other hand, the cementing resin between the porcelain or the zirconia and the tooth can see its colour altered, thus affecting the appearance of the facet.

 

h) Root canal treatments

Risks associated with access

Damage to a restoration already present in the mouth: When the dentist needs to do root canal treatment on a tooth with a crown or other restoration, the restoration (or crown) may be damaged to the point of needing to be replaced, repaired or reattached. The rubber dam clamp can damage the crown and the gingival finish of the tooth on which it rests.

Perforation during the preparation of the access cavity: Sometimes, milling to find the orifices of the canals, the crown is perforated on the sides or in the floor of the pulp chamber.

Tooth fracture: Caution is required, as the tooth may give way under chewing forces during treatment.

Channel not detected: Unintentionally, some canals can be left without cleaning, disinfection, mechanical preparation and sealing. This can lead to postoperative complications that can manifest themselves in the more or less long term (tenderness, pain or infection). If this is the case, then the dentist may recommend other treatments to remedy the situation.

 

Risks associated with instrumentation

Perforation at the root level: At the middle part of the root, with a curved root, the perforation is outward—side perforation. Apical perforation or deviation of the apical foramen is a situation that occurs when two rigid instruments are brought to the curved end of a canal, thus causing unnecessary enlargement of the orifice. The channel is then more challenging to seal.

Instrument breakage in the canal: Since some endodontic instruments are fragile and the size of the canals of most teeth is tiny, it is possible for a device to break inside one of the tooth’s canals during treatment. This could affect the prognosis of root canal treatment.

Channel blocking: This occurs when debris forms a solid mass in the canal or when the fibrous pulp tissue is compacted against the canal’s walls.

 

Complications related to obturation

Under-obturation: This is a situation where the filling material does not travel to the apical foramen. Suppose this situation prevents healing of a pre-existing infection and/or is combined with postoperative symptoms originating from the canals of the treated tooth. In that case, a revision of the root canal (endodontic retreatment) or apical surgery with a retrograde filling may be indicated.

Over-filling: The canal filling material is located outside the canal, in contact with the tissue around the tooth’s root. This can cause delayed healing, prevent a pre-existing infection, or lead to postoperative symptoms related to endodontic treatment. If this is the case, the dentist may recommend other treatments to remedy the situation.

 

Other complications

Postoperative awakening: After a root canal appointment, some pain may be felt when touching the tooth. The dentist will prescribe pain relievers, and this pain will gradually subside after 72 hours. Swelling In a case of a tooth previously infected, swelling may occur, which can be controlled by taking an appropriate antibiotic.

If the infection persists, the possible interventions are Root canal retreatment, apical surgery with retrograde filling, extraction and replacement of the edentulous space.

 

Here are the difficulties that can arise during your root canal treatment:

  • Curvatures
  • Interferences, calcification
  • Difficult access
  • Accessory channels
  • Dual Channels
  • Resorption
  • Infection or other associated lesion
  • Patient’s medical condition

 

i) Extraction of a wisdom tooth or impacted tooth

Damage to adjacent nerve structures: Trauma to a sensory nerve, whether it is the inferior dental nerve or the lingual nerve, can lead to paresthesia, which is defined as loss of sensitivity in the chin, lip or tongue. The duration of which is variable. Usually, the numbness is temporary, but on rare occasions, it can be permanent.

Damage to the upper maxillary sinus: The maxillary sinus is a pneumatic cavity located in the upper jaw. If the sinus is oversized, it can extend around the apices (tips) of the roots and thus enlarge, and a bone fracture, as well as a communication between the sinus and the oral cavity, can be created.

Damage to neighbouring teeth: It can consist of a coronary fracture.

Risk of root fracture: If the shape of the roots is not favourable for performing this procedure, the risk may be high. In these cases, a partial omentectomy may be considered.

Risk of mandibular fracture: A fracture of the lower jaw bone can occur.

Risk of infection: This can happen as a result of the extraction. In some cases, the crushing of food, a residual tooth fragment or a foreign body can be the cause.

Risk of dry socket: It is the most common postoperative complication, defined by the premature loss of the blood clot from the alveolus, causing superficial osteonecrosis of the alveolar bone. This can occur three to five days after the extraction and is manifested by a very sharp pain thatcan radiate to the lear leveland by bad breath.

Other disadvantages: Pain and discomfort, trismus (limitation of mouth opening), bleeding (hemorrhage), myofascial pain, edema (swelling), temporomandibular joint disorder.

 

j) Dental implant and fixed prostheses

Implant failure: In the short term, it is the non-osseointegration of the implant, that is to say, the absence of fusion between the bone and the implant. In the medium to long term, there is a rejection of the implant caused by an unbalanced prosthesis resulting in slow resorption (destruction) of the bone around the implant.

Complications: They can appear at all stages of treatment and represent an essential part of all
complications observed in implantology. They mainly consist of the fracture of the implant, a significant complication requiring its removal and its replacement by a larger diameter implant, which is fortunately infrequent. From unscrewing one or more tightening screws of the prosthesis or abutment screws, sometimes going as far as breaking these screws, the removal of which can sometimes prove difficult. Breakage of the prosthesis and other breakage associated with the retention parts may appear, thus resulting in additional costs.

Hygiene: Questions about maintaining good gum health are critical to the durability of implants. The patient’s lack of hygiene and an accumulation of bacterial plaque quickly induce infiltration under the gum tissue and craterization around the implant. The gingival pathologies that we encounter are, in general, of late-onset and are modelled on gingivitis and periodontitis
observed around natural teeth.

The follow-up: As with all other treatments, care should be taken to ensure proper follow-up after the end of treatment. Failure or neglect of regular check-ups can lead to complications or even loss of prosthetic treatment. The dentist should check the fixed implant prosthesis and should be changed as needed, as it undergoes wear and ageing like a conventional prosthesis.

 

5. FOLLOW-UP AFTER TREATMENTS

A few days after dental care or treatment, a consultation is required to check the patient’s condition to ensure that everything is done well and does not involve any travel risk.

One of the essential things, when you go to another country for dental treatment, is the follow-up when you return to your country. You must send to the dentist (after 3, 6 and 12 months) images of the area of your treatments to allow him to follow the evolution of the results and your recovery.

In addition, inform them immediately of any pain, infection, swelling, fever or other symptoms. On request, he will send your medical file to your family doctor if emergencies arise.

 

6. RESPONSIBILITIES

On the medical level, only the responsibility of the dentist can be engaged.

I acknowledge that I am aware that the person who translates the surgeon’s information and accompanies me to Colombia has no medical responsibility.

The patient’s responsibility is to provide the information requested by the dentist and pay the costs indicated on the contract.

 

7. GUARANTEES

The notion of an unsatisfactory result involves an essential part of subjectivity, and it is therefore based on the opinion of experts in cosmetic dentistry and mutual good faith. Our warranty is valid for five years for crowns, bridges and dental veneers, as well as a lifetime warranty for dental implants. Complete permanent fixed dentures on implants have a one year warranty.

Remember that the dentist has the choice to repair, replace or reimburse the services or products and that the reimbursement cannot exceed the amount that the patient has to pay for dental treatment.

In the event of a proven complication:

  • If the patient has a complication during and after the operation while in Colombia, all the support is done on-site at the dentist’s expense.
  • Suppose the patient has a complication when he has already returned to his country of origin and has followed the recommendations, and this is still under warranty. In that case, the dentist in Colombia will pay for the new treatment, and photos will make the evaluation. If the dentist noted the preliminary result in Colombia, the total cost of further intervention in Colombia is the dentist’s responsibility in Colombia. Still, the prices of transport stay, and this guarantee does not cover subsistence.
  • The dentist in Colombia will do everything possible to develop a practical solution if the patient does not wish to return to Colombia for the new treatment. He will ask the patient to make an appointment with a dentist offered by the Colombian dentist to receive the appropriate care or treatment. The dentist in Colombia undertakes to provide the patient’s medical file on request and in French.

 

In the event of an unsatisfactory result:

The results are evaluated three times a year (3, 6 and 12 months) after the intervention based on images before and after sent by the patient. It nevertheless remains subjective, and the reason why two situations are considered:

  1. If the dentist shares the unsatisfactory report in Colombia, he will bear the costs of the new intervention. The patient must present to Colombia at his own expense.
  2. If the dentist does not share the unsatisfactory finding in Colombia, the arbitration will be done by a cosmetic dentist at the patient’s choice and the patient’s expense. The dentist in Colombia will comply with the established report and cover the costs of the new treatment. The patient must present to Colombia at his own expense.

Legally, in all countries of the world, the dentist has a contract of means and not of results. This obligation does not require the dentist to guarantee an outcome but to take all reasonable means to obtain the desired result. This means that if the result is not satisfactory, but there is no medical error, no legal action can be taken.

 

8. LEGAL REMEDIES

The patient acknowledges that in the event of medical malpractice in Colombia, the dentist in Colombia is not subject to Canadian or Quebec laws but to the civil code of Colombia where the dental care and treatment took place.

Furthermore, since dentistry is not a market good, financial compensation cannot be requested for an unsatisfactory result.

You can seek legal redress if there is a fault or a technical error. However, the patient must provide proof of this error and travel to Colombia to initiate legal proceedings.

To establish fault, the question to ask is: Was the dentist’s behaviour reasonably prudent, diligent and competent? In other words, would another dentist in the same circumstances have acted in the same way?